These test methods cover direct-current procedures for the measurement of dc insulation resistance,
volume resistance, and surface resistance. From such measurements and the geometric dimensions of specimen and electrodes, both volume and surface resistivity of electrical insulating materials can be calculated, as well as the corresponding conductances and conductivities. These test methods are not suitable for use in measuring the electrical resistance/conductance of moderately conductive materials. Use Test Method D4496 to evaluate such materials. This standard describes several general alternative methodologies for measuring resistance (or conductance). Specific materials can be tested most appropriately by using standard ASTM test methods applicable to the specific material that define both voltage stress limits and finite electrification times as well as specimen configuration and electrode geometry. These individual specific test methodologies would be better able to define the precision and bias for the determination.
Note: The above information is taken directly from the test method Scope published in ASTM D257.